Relative Pronouns in German

A relative clause is a dependent clause that cannot stand alone.  It is introduced by a pronoun that refers to a noun or pronoun (antecedent) in the preceding independent clause.


The Atlantic is the ocean that separates Europe and Africa from America.

Der Atlantik ist das Meer, das Europa und Afrika von Amerika trennt.

In English, these relative pronouns include:  who, whom, which and that.

In German, the relative pronouns take the same forms as the definite articles, except in the DATIVE PLURAL.

You must have a comma between the main and the relative clauses, and the verb in the relative clause belongs at the end of the clause (dependent word order).
Case Maskulin Neutrum Feminin Plural
 Nom der das die die
 Akk den das die die
 Dat dem dem der denen


While you will not be expected to produce relative pronouns this semester, you must be able